What is planned therapy
What is planned therapy? How to treat phobias through psychological correction of basic needs
Planning therapy is a comprehensive approach that integrates specific aspects of cognitive behavior, interpersonal relationships, and psychoanalytic therapy into one model.
The planned therapy was developed by Dr. Jeffrey Young, who worked closely with Aaron Beck, the founder of cognitive therapy. In the process of treating clients, he found that a certain percentage of people cannot use standard cognitive therapy.
This mainly includes patients with personality disorders and the first axis of the American disease classification, which includes anxiety, addiction and other diseases.
These people have long-term, extremely rigid patterns and themes in their thinking, emotions and behavior. Young people call this model a plan. However, the concept of schema originated from cognitive theory and is actually its foundation.
Frederick Barlett (Frederick Barlett) was the first to demonstrate the actions of the plan; he found that people tend to interpret the information received based on a given theme. For example, a person who has experienced theft will be suspicious of those who approach him on the street, while a person who has no experience of theft is easier to get to know.
In this case, the scheme is an abstract mental structure, not a concrete image or belief. They act as filters through which we pass all information to us.
Therefore, the plan contains signs of a specific stimulus situation that controls our attention when being perceived and triggers certain reactions to it.
Jean Piaget (Jean Piaget) proposed the concept of the plan. He showed that the development of the human mind is precisely due to the development of plans. This development is carried out through two processes.
1. Adaptation. For example, when the individual uses a plan to explain the current situation, the Omen believer will interpret his misfortune as a cat crossing his way. both. .2.
Assimilation, when the plan changes under the influence of new experiences. For example, if nothing happened to the black cat crossing the road, he might conclude that all these signs are nonsense and no longer believe them.
Therefore, the mode is a variable structure. However, things are not that simple. Leon Festinger proved in his cognitive dissonance theory that schemas always try to protect themselves from changes, and one always tends to seek confirmation of their schemas.
For example, if the cat becomes expensive and nothing bad happens, then this person can be interpreted as another omen. Or, on the contrary, he can confirm the role of the omen without knowing it, for example, accidentally breaking a vase and declaring that the omen is still working. Obviously, this behavior is achieved with the help of cognitive distortion, and it is implemented in order to protect your beliefs and your understanding of the world.
Therefore, the plan is a stable, rigid and self-sustaining template that can serve as a filter for human perception and develop throughout life.
Although most programs help our operations, there are still some maladaptive programs. This scheme does not allow us to adapt effectively to the situation, distort our perceptions and interrupt our satisfaction with urgent needs. These are the plans made by Jeffrey Young. He found that this scheme was not recognized by humans because it was formed in early childhood.
This has to do with how our brain works. After all, we store cognitive memories in the neocortex or cerebral cortex, and emotional memories in an area called the amygdala or amygdala. The latter works outside of our consciousness, and external impulses reach it many times faster. When the impulse reaches the amygdala, we already have a violent emotional response without realizing its cause. Our early memories are fixed in the amygdala, because children cannot process information in language and cannot store information cognitively. This is why Young, like the classic cognitive behavioral therapy, bases the treatment on emotion rather than cognition.
As a person grows up, he may face a situation similar to childhood again. Then the amygdala is activated again and manifests itself in the form of emotions, physical sensations, movement and other automatic manifestations.
In the process of work, Yang also discovered the most common maladaptive programs, including as many as 18, divided into 5 groups.
The first set of hypotheses failed to establish a relationship and was rejected. This includes the following scenarios.
This is a belief that the loved one will not be able to provide the necessary care, support and protection because: they are either emotionally unstable or unpredictable; they are either dead or abandoned.
Such a plan can be formed due to divorce or death of relatives. Such people are often addicted to interpersonal relationships because of fear of being abandoned.
This is the expectation that others will insult, insult, deceive, and manipulate. This phenomenon usually occurs due to physical, psychological or sexual abuse. Such people are extremely sensitive to the negative actions of others and accuse them of maliciousness.
People think that one cannot get the emotional support of others. He felt misunderstood, ignored, and lacked adequate protection. This pattern was formed due to the negligence of childhood and the lack of empathy and protection. People with this plan are cold, withdrawn, and choose the same partner for themselves.
Feeling that a person is defective, bad, and inferior. The plan arose out of criticism and ridicule from parents and relatives. On this basis, there has been excessive sensitivity to criticism, rejection and inward feeling. Constantly compare yourself with others. Such people believe that no one will love them.
Social Isolation/Alienation (SI)
The feeling of being isolated from the world and different from others. A similar pattern will be formed when parents criticize his appearance, behavior and let him know that he is worse than others. Through this scheme, a person thinks that he is not suitable for others in society and obeys others. At the same time, he himself tried to fight for isolation.
The next set of plans violates autonomy
It is believed that without the help of others, one person cannot be competent for daily work. This kind of plan occurs when parents do not allow their children to feel independent and independent. Such people usually need help from others, cannot make their own decisions, and cannot find a major partner.
7. Vulnerable danger
This is the patient’s belief that he may be in trouble at any time and he will not be able to cope. The plan was created under the influence of parents taking excessive protective actions against their children. Parents convinced their children that the world is a dangerous place and life is unpredictable. Such people are characterized by increased anxiety and often phobias
8. Merged/Unexplored Identity
Excessive emotional involvement will damage your character. It implies a belief that a person cannot survive or be happy without the continuous support of others. Such a scheme is created in the context of an emotionally intertwined family, in which there is no boundary between people. Such people are difficult to be independent, and they cannot actually exist outside of society.
This includes unreasonable failure predictions. It is usually assumed that a person is stupid, incompetent, and powerless. The plan was proposed in the face of constant criticism from parents, who constantly compare their children with other children. Such people feel that they are worse than others, although if they observe their results objectively, they will prove that they are adequate or above average.
The third category is violation of boundaries
Believe that one person is superior to others; the right to enjoy special privileges is not restricted by social norms. Sometimes this includes excessive competition or domination over others-no sympathy or acceptance. This scheme is formed either in overspoiled children or in deprived children (in this case, it is a compensation mechanism).
11. Insufficient self-control/self-discipline
This is the belief that cannot control your needs, desires, emotions and impulses. In a mild form, it just avoids any discomfort. Such plans are created in families where parents do not raise children, do not teach self-control, and do not restrict their behavior. Sometimes it is caused by uncertainty and tension in family conflict situations. Such people act impulsively and actively, and can hardly delay the satisfaction of their needs.
This is a belief that others can decide everything for a person, and a person cannot have his own desires and preferences. Schemas will appear when parents continue to punish children for expressing emotions and needs. This leads to an increase in anger, which manifests as symptoms of maladaptation (for example, passive aggressive behavior, uncontrolled outbursts of anger, psychosomatic symptoms, etc.).
Excessive focus on meeting the needs of others. The man pushes himself into the background. However, if in the previous case, the fear of being punished was the motivation, then the people here are trying to maintain this relationship. This pattern may develop in children whose parents use them as caregivers prematurely. These people feel inside when they take care of themselves, so they put the needs of others first.
14. Seek approval/recognition
In this case, people overestimate the desire to gain recognition, approval or attention from others. Such a plan was formed in the family that first had social status. Such people do not know how to say “no”, express their intentions or needs, and passively act or adapt to others.
Excessive control and depression
15. Negative/negative emotions
Keep paying attention to negative emotions. At the same time, the positive aspects are minimized or not noticed at all. This also includes being overly worried about making mistakes. When the parents remember and laugh at any crime, the plan is based on the critical attitude of the parents, which leads to the tension of constant anticipation of criticism. Such patients are characterized by chronic restlessness, vigilance, complaints or hesitation. They will not try to proactively achieve their goals.
Excessive suppression of spontaneous movements and feelings to avoid opposition, shame or loss of control. This kind of plan occurs when parents insist on controlling their children’s impulses and punishing children for showing strong emotions, especially anger. These patients behaved indifferently, restrained, and rationally. They cannot show warmth and empathy, nor can they express emotions.
17. Higher standards/supercritical
The desire to meet the highest standards and strictest requirements, even at the expense of one’s own happiness. Moreover, these people apply these requirements not only to themselves, but also to those around them. This pattern occurs in families where parents are constantly concerned about productivity and achievement, and show their love based on children’s achievements. Such patients are usually successful externally, but continue to suffer depression, anxiety and dissatisfaction internally.
18. Punishment/Punishment (KP)
Think that people should be severely punished for their mistakes. This includes the tendency to be angry and impatient with people who do not meet the standard (including ourselves). This pattern is formed in families where too many criticisms and accusations are made every day, but critics never pay attention to their behavior.
Young also divides all these plans into conditional and unconditional. A conditional plan is usually a compensatory strategy or a response to an unconditional strategy. In this case, they were formed later than unconditionally, and became the only way to satisfy basic needs at the expense of basic needs.
For example, the subordinate program can compensate for the abandoned program, that is, the abandoned program. A person who is afraid of loneliness will begin to subordinate his own interests to the interests of the group. High-standard solutions can make up for shortcomings, failures or negative solutions, and fear of mistakes.
At different moments in our lives, various programs are active, and these programs change according to external conditions. The characteristics of the external conditions that trigger circuit activity are called triggers. For example, wrong assessment from others may trigger the activation of the defect solution.
When one or another program is activated, a person is considered to have entered a certain functional mode. Political power is a typical state that guides the flow of a person’s thoughts and emotions and determines his behavior.
Based on his practice, Young described the most commonly used treatment options for this patient.
1. Enterprising mode. In this mode, the patient will exhibit positive behavior, feel the need to scream, and destroy everything around him. Feelings of depression, anxiety, and lack of support appear.
2. The impulsive mode is the biggest irresponsible mode. Here you can observe drunk driving and drug use, suicidal behavior, tantrums, unsafe sex, and attacks of anger, gambling, etc.;
3. Abandonment mode refers to a mode in which patients feel lonely and abandoned by everyone. In this case, the belief in him may be “I am against the world”. Depression, pessimism, feeling that love is not worthwhile, and the perception of personality traits as irreparable defects are also observed here.
4. Avoidance (separation) mode usually forces a person to stay away from any contact and hiding, as well as separation in various situations. These people can’t defend themselves
. 5. The obedient system refers to a system in which a person obeys like a child and tries to satisfy all the needs of others.
6. A competitive (compensatory) system forces one person to compete and fight with others. For example, he must constantly prove to himself and others that he is not in a defect.
7. The punishment (perfectionist) system forces patients to comply with more and more standards. The patient felt that he should be severely punished, perhaps because of “defects” or simple mistakes.
These modes can also flow into each other as the circuit switches. For example, after completing stupid things in aggressive mode, a person can switch to punishment mode and perform self-flag.
8. Finally, a healthy adult program is the actual goal of program treatment. Healthy adults can comfortably make decisions, solve problems, think before acting, set boundaries and boundaries, educate themselves and others, build healthy relationships, take full responsibility and take care of their own health.
In this model, patients hopefully focus on today and work hard for a better tomorrow. A healthy adult forgives the past, no longer sees himself as a victim, but a survivor, and expresses all emotions in an appropriate way.
To achieve this state, a treatment plan is implemented. As I said, it includes technologies from different disciplines, which can be divided into three categories.
1. Cognitive technology involves applying the classical methods of cognitive therapy to schemas, for example, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of schemas, testing schemas in practice, and dialogue between schemas and the healthy part of personality.
2. Emotions and experimental techniques are mainly based on Gestalt therapy and psychodrama skills and imaginative skills.
3. Finally, behavioral skills usually include role playing and homework.
The work of the plan is carried out in three simple steps.
1. Evaluation. This stage involves the selection and analysis of maladaptive options. It starts from the first course of treatment. To determine the model, both dialogue and sometimes special questionnaires are used.
Emotional awareness and experimentation. At this stage, the patient himself must not only be in the psychologist’s office, but also learn about his own plan, importance, and impact on his own situation in his daily life.
3. Behavior changes. After the client learns to identify his own bad indications, the therapist will help him substitute healthier ones.
It is worth mentioning that Young’s basic ideas are not new. Plan has been used before, in fact, plan has been used in most therapies, and Young’s main advantage lies in the classification of basic plans. In particular, I can tell you how to use pattern therapy.
Working within the framework of Gestalt therapy, it can be observed that the clients are different